Sunday, 25 May 2014




        Energy supply in the future is a problem that attracts attention of all nations, because human welfare in modern life is closely related to the amount and quality of energy used. The global energy consumption is likely to grow faster than the population growth. The fuel consumption was growing from 6630 million tons of oil equivalents (Mtoe) in 1980 to almost double reaching 11,163 Mtoe in 2009. This projected consumption will increase 1.5% per year until 2030 and will reach 16,900 Mtoe and the main drivers of this growth are developing countries in Asia.
        The energy consumption is mainly based on fossil fuels which account for 88.1% whereby with crude oil consisting of 34.8%, coal 29.2% and natural gas 24.1%. However the share of nuclear energy and hydroelectricity are very small with only 5.5% and 6.4% respectively. At current production rates, global proven reserves for crude oil and natural gas are estimated to last for 41.8 and 60.3 years respectively. Furthermore, the fossil fuels will significantly contribute to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) from the combustion and raising the climate change issue. Thus, the new and renewable energies will become one of the main energy sources for the world. Currently, renewable energy contributes only 11% of the total global energy used.


Why solar energy we choose as a renewable energy, because Solar energy is the most promising backup energy as it has many advantages over other resources. Solar energy is a naturally available and clean energy source derived from the sun that can be exploited directly to generate electricity. No release of pollutant, low maintenance and high reliability, with life span expectation of 20–30 years made solar power a favorable source of energy to be used in the future. Policies already released to support  reducing emission in the world. A variety of policies like feed-in-tariff (FIT), portfolio standard (RPS), tax credits, pricing laws, production incentives, quota requirements, trading systems etc. have been developed and implemented to promote the use of renewable energy (RE) .These strategies have main objective such as reducing the environmental impacts of the energy sector, reducing reliance on fossil fuels and encouraging new industrial development. Yet the renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and the feed-in tariff (FIT) are the most popular. Though there exist a lot of debates surround their effectiveness, expecting a choice that has to be made between them. For this, it could be decided by the countries that which Renewable Energy policy can be applicable in their own particular circumstances and objectives. According to Ekins “No optimal model has emerged, and probably none will do so in the contexts that is shaped by different histories and cultures”.


Rural area is defined as a region, which is not urbanized. One of the main characteristics of rural area is its low population density is one of the common highlights of rural areas. Normally high portions of the lands in rural areas are devoted to agricul- ture. On the other hand, there are vast arid regions around the world that are also considered as rural areas. Therefore, there is no unique definition of the rural area that can be applied to all regions in the world and it can be variable from each country to another. However, the most critical aspect in the rural area rather than low population density is less access to energy sources, lack of education, health, and welfares. Increasing access to affordable and reliable energy services is an approach to reduce the energy poverty in these regions. For this case we consider the rural are as describe below

Location : Ban Village, Kubutambahan District, Karangasem Regency
Koordinate :
-       Latitude      :  - 8.276387
-       Longitude   : 115.484748

Map of Bali Island
We have several reasons why we choose solar sell energy system in this area :
  •   Rural area
  • Water is quite hard ( water resources in this area small, not enough to use micro hydro
  • Location in behind Mountain (Mountain Agung) which is quite hard to install wind turbine because the velocity average in this area is low.

An alternative we can applied in this area is Solar Home System, because the distance between one house to the other house is quite far. They replace kerosene lamps and candles traditionally used for lighting. Typically, a rural family will spend between $5-$10 per month on energy and lighting expenses. Furthermore, fumes produced from traditional lighting methods are toxic and lead to chronic lung problems, especially when children are exposed. Generally, a family will use about 3 liters of kerosene per month. Using these dimmer sources of light for studying or handicraft production can strain the eyes and cause long-term vision problems. Having a solar system will allow children to study and small businesses to continue production later into the night. This increases the population’s ability to be self-sufficient, raises their incomes, and allows them to begin to lift themselves out of poverty.


        A solar-home-system uses a photovoltaic (solar-electric) module to provide power for lights and small appliances. The system also needs a rechargeable battery, so that power is still available at night and on cloudy days. Solar-home-systems bring huge benefits to homes in developing countries which aren’t connected to the mains electricity grid. They replace smoky, unsafe kerosene lamps with brighter light, allowing work, study and social activities after dark. They also power radios and cell phone chargers, enabling families to be in contact with the wider world. The smallest systems are solar lanterns, which can be moved around the home or carried outdoors.
      Solar-home-systems and solar lanterns already provide power to millions of homes in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Similar systems are also used in off-grid schools and health centers. How a solar-home-system works  Photovoltaic (PV) modules use semiconductor materials to generate d.c. electricity from sunlight. A large area is needed to collect as much sunlight as possible, so the semiconductor is either made into thin, flat, crystalline cells, or deposited as a very thin continuous layer onto a support material. The semiconductor must be sealed into a weatherproof casing, with suitable electrical connectors.

       PV modules are specified by their ‘watt-peak’ (Wp) rating, which is the power generated under standard conditions, equivalent to bright sun in the tropics (they still work at lower light levels though). Most solar-home-systems use modules between about 10 Wp and 100 Wp rating. The rechargeable batteries store spare electricity on sunny days, so that it is available at night and on cloudy days. They also provide a stable voltage (usually 12 V) for the devices which use the electricity. Standard lead-acid car batteries can be used, but they don’t last long if they are heavily discharged, so specially-made solar versions are strongly recommended. Other types of rechargeable battery like nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal-hydride are increasingly used, particularly in small systems like solar lanterns. They are more expensive, but easier to make small and portable, and more tolerant of being heavily discharged. All equipment run directly from the PV supply must be designed for 12 V d.c. operation. Efficient lights and appliances make best use of the limited supply of electricity.
        Efficient d.c. fluorescent lights are available down to about 3 or 4 W power rating, in both tube and compact forms. LED lights are even more efficient, and are now sufficiently cheap and reliable to be used as well. In most systems, an electronic charge-controller is used to protect the battery from being overcharged (when it is very sunny) or over-discharged (when people try to get too much electricity from the system). The charge controller usually has lights or a meter to indicate the state-of-charge of the battery.


Thank you so much for posting. I have been looking for something like this.Solar Panels for sale

ur welcome Malik, I wrote this article because i have assigment from my lecture.Hope is worthed for u :D

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